Rice paddy field conservation tillage technology model
"Paddy Field Conservation Tillage Technology" is another revolution in the cultivation of rice fields. It has the advantages of no-tillage cultivation saving investment, straw returning land cultivation fertility, water conservation covering cultivation, avoiding incineration and ecological protection, simple operation and farmers acceptance, etc. It is an advanced and practical cost-effective new technology, suitable for the protection of water sources in the south The two quarterly fields are widely promoted. Since 2000, based on the experimental study of the Soil Fertilizer Ecology Department of Sichuan Provincial Department of Agriculture and the Department of Two Agricultural Sciences of Chengdu City, the demonstration has been carried out in some counties in western Sichuan Plain. The effect is very obvious. The technology has matured and a fixed pattern has been formed. First, the technical mechanism "Paddy field conservation tillage technology" refers to the cultivation of rice, wheat or rape two seasons without tilling without cultivation, rice, wheat, oil harvested in a timely manner to cover the straw evenly, rice using cast seed, wheat The rapeseed sowing and rapeseed planting will be combined with techniques of cultivation, no-tillage cultivation, water-saving irrigation, balanced fertilization, water and soil conservation, and ecological protection. Straw can be used as a cover to return land, which not only fertilizes fertility, saves irrigation water, but also avoids burning in the field to protect the environment, and at the same time reduces or even eliminates grass damage; no-tillage cultivation saves investment without disrupting tillage and cutting off soil capillary It is conducive to soil permeability and the formation of granule structure; rice throwing hoe, wheat and rapeseed sowing, not only save labor, but also conducive to the formation of large spikes at low tillers. 2. Technical features Conservation tillage in paddy fields is a combination of three new technologies: no-tillage, straw mulching, and rice transplanting, and wheat and rapeseed sowing, so that the advantages of the three are brought into full play. Fertilizer and ecological protection. 1, straw returned to the field. Regardless of artificial or mechanically harvested stalks, there is no need for drying, transportation or stacking fermentation, and no need to dig trenches or plough the fields. Simply return the stalks to the field, which is simpler than burying stubble or cultivating fields. . 2, no-tillage cultivation. No matter whether it is spring wheat, oilseed rape, or large spring rice, neither soil nor land should be used to open trenches. 3, rice throwing plant, wheat, rape spread. Rice seedlings were planted with dry seedlings, which not only reduced the labor intensity of artificial hand transplanting, but also greatly increased labor efficiency, and achieved stable yield and high yield. Spreading of wheat and rapeseed changed the long-term artificial armpit on-demand or machine drilled wheat. The method and the heavy work of transplanting rapeseed seedlings have achieved the purpose of light, fast and efficient planting methods. Third, the technical point of the key technology: Harvest straw will be flattened and spoiled straw cemetery, wheat or rapeseed species spread on the surface of rice, rice seedlings seedlings planted in the surface of wheat or rape stalk, rice 7 days after throwing Make sure the roots come into contact with water. The size of spring is not soil, continuous no-tillage. Farmers praised that this method is simple and easy, and farming is effortless. 1. Paddy field conservation tillage and throwing rice technology adopts dry rice breeding technology to grow dwarf, strong, strong, multipod, and large seedlings without pests and diseases. The seedling age is controlled within 40 days, and the height of shoots is controlled within 25cm with paclobutrazol; After harvesting rape, wheat and rapeseed stalks were evenly spread over the whole field in time, 2kg per mu was planted and the water was soaked in deep water. Then fertilization, the amount of fertilization per mu was guaranteed to be 8kg pure N, 5kgP2O5, 5kgK2O; Planted 1.8 to 2 million pot seedlings. Use two seedlings of seedlings or water seedlings. The seedlings should be drained the day before throwing, in order to facilitate seedling propagation. Within 7 days after throwing, it is necessary to ensure that the roots come into contact with the water. After the seedlings are rooted, the gaps will be irrigated during the growth period, timely fertilizer will be given, and disease and insect pests will be strengthened. In the process of rice growth, wheat and rape stalks are gradually rotted under the effect of spoiling straw and high temperature and high humidity. When the rice matures, wheat and rape stalks have completely rotted. 2. Spreading of wheat and rapeseed technology in paddy field Conservation rice After harvesting, Honda straw will be evenly spread on the field surface, while Mushi 2kg rot straw spirit will be applied. During the two months of high-temperature and high-humidity stage of harvesting rice and sowing Xiaochun, the role of rot straw spirit was added. The straw laid on the field had basically rotted. In addition, straw was covered on the field surface, and the field was basically free of weeds without chemical weeding. When sowing wheat base fertilizer to ensure that Mushi 9kg pure N, 7kgP2O5, 7kgK2O; rape base fertilizer to ensure Mushi 10kg pure N, 7kgP2O5, 7kgK2O and 1kg of boron fertilizer. Fertilizer and seeds are sprinkled on the straw surface. Wheat seeds should be coated or treated with a seed dressing to avoid harm to the rodents. The sowing date is 2-3 days earlier than the customary sowing method, and the sowing amount is increased by about 15% compared with the conventional sowing method. After sowing, wheat and rape should be moistened and emerged. Fields with poor sensation in the field can be filled with horse water for one time. Water is not suitable for the surface of the plane, and it is not suitable for water irrigation. Mu is diluted with 30-40 water. Seeds above. When sowing wheat and rapeseed, because the field surface is covered with straw, the general sensation is better, do not need irrigation and pouring fecal water. Wheat and rape can emerge quickly under moist conditions. After only seeing seedlings to supplement fertilizers, prevent diseases and pests. When wheat and rape mature, the straw has turned into organic matter. Fourth, technological benefits 1, increase revenue and reduce expenditure. The results of three consecutive years of rigorous tests and demonstrations show that the average yield increase per mu for rice, wheat, or rape is more than 3%, and at the same time, at least 5 workers per mu (sowing, transplanting, fertilizing, treating straw, weeding, etc.) With 10 yuan per workday, the labor cost per mu is 50 yuan, and no-tillage is 50 yuan per mu. Total of three items, the increase of revenue by more than 100 yuan per mu. 2, save water. The results of the trial and research show that only one season of planting rice can save 100m3 of irrigation water. With the implementation of the technology, when rice seedlings are established and rooted, the field surface is completely covered with straw and the soil moisture is very good. The paddy needs only gap irrigation during the whole growth period of the rice, not only saving water, but also growing rice under semi-drought conditions, and it is both strong and strong. Ears and spikes produce high yields. 3, protect the ecology. Implementing this technology, the straw will be returned to farmland in full, which will turn waste into treasure, fertilize fertility, keep water and soil, increase the amount of soil turbulence, and avoid the destruction of the environment by incineration in the wild, thus effectively protecting the ecology. 4. The comprehensive production capacity of cultivated land will increase. According to the results of eight consecutive years of trials in Wanan Village, Qingcheng Township, Dujiangyan City, the annual fertilizer application rate will be reduced by 10-15% from the third year, and the output of large and small springs will not be reduced. From the 6th year onwards, it will be necessary after nursery and transplanting. With a small amount of fertilizer, no fertilization can be done throughout the growing period, especially if no N fertilizer is applied, otherwise it will cause prolonged growth. At the same time, the paddy soils in the paddy fields are loose and fertile and should be suitable for planting, and the comprehensive production capacity is obviously improved. At the same time, due to the coverage of straw, there are no weeds in the spring and spring in the fields, and weeds are not covered with straw. 5. Wide application prospects. The test results also show that this technology is suitable for plains and two-season areas with water protection, and the province's suitable area is more than 2000 million mu. According to climatic conditions, the two cropping fields in southern China's rice area should also be suitable. This year, Shuangliu, Qingshen, Mianzhu and other counties and cities in our province have demonstrated the application of this technology on a large scale. The enthusiasm of the masses is high and the effect is significant.
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