In recent years, with the strategic adjustment of agriculture and rural industrial structure in Shenyang City and the accelerating pace of the internationalization of rural economy, we have focused on giving full play to regional and resource advantages, highlighting the development of characteristic agriculture and advantageous industries, and exporting onions to the north, east, and to the east. The scope of the expansion of the South continues to expand, so that the small onion becomes a major industry, exports to Japan, Russia and other countries, the export volume showed a steady growth trend. In 2004, Shenyang City planted 667 hectares of onions, and the total output was up to 40,000 tons. It is estimated that it could earn 24 million yuan. It can be said that the development of onion production has become an important industry for farmers to become rich. Its main cultivation techniques are as follows:
1 Use good seed and cultivate strong seedlings.
1.1 Based on local conditions, selection of improved varieties should be based on the needs of importing countries. They should select the best varieties of yellow husk, such as Kamuiyi, Apple No.1, Hongye No.3, Golden Crown, which are imported from Japan and the United States. In winter, strong springs do not twitch, and the bulbs are round, with good color, high yield, and good quality. The average yield can reach 75,000 kg.
1.2 Fine soil preparation, timely sowing of onion sprouting slower, fine soil preparation before sowing, generally 75,000kg of organic fertilizer per hectare, 450kg of N, P, K compound fertilizer, deep turning, fine grinding, smoothing, making width 1 ~ 1.2m , 10 to 15m in length. In the onion cultivation in Shenyang area, spring cultivation in the greenhouse and spring cultivation in the shed (cold bed) are mostly adopted. The nursery in the solar greenhouse should be planted in late January, and the nursery in the shed (cold bed) should be sown from late February to early March. Before sowing, the bed soil should be solid, and the bottom water must be sprayed. After the water infiltrate, the seeds should be sown. After covering the soil for 1 to 1.50n, the cover film should be covered, and the shed should be buckled.
1.3 Seedling management when more than 50% of the emergence of plastic film, 7 ~ 8d after sowing can be Qimiao. Cold Shed nursery at night to add cover on the agricultural film to prevent cold, sunlight greenhouse after the Qimiao can remove the small arch shed, temperature management at 15 ~ 25 °C. Before the seedlings are fully watered, the water is generally not watered, and the seedlings are poured with a small amount of water. After 15 to 20 days, they are poured once more to promote the growth of the seedlings and keep the soil moist. At the same time, urea is topdressed with 225 kg per hectare combined with watering. Afterwards, fertilizer water was adjusted according to the growth of the seedlings, and the control seedlings reached 3 to 4 leaves when planting, and the pseudostem diameter was 0.6 to 0.8 cm. Pay attention to appropriate increase air release, cooling and hardening seedlings; depending on the symptoms of seedlings and diseases, chlorothalonil 80% times spray can be used to prevent disease; use trichlorfon, dimethoate to control pests.
2 Timely transplanting, reasonable close planting
2.1 Prepare earthworms on site, apply appropriate amount of onion as a shallow root crop, and select loose and fertile sandy soil for planting. Combine deep-fertilized 75,000 to 105,000 kg of organic fertilizer per hectare and 750 kg of N, P, and K compound fertilizer. It is 1 to 1.2 meters in length and 10 to 15 meters in length.
2.2 Timely colonization, reasonable close planting and planting time Generally, in Shenyang, from late March to early April, the seedling selection and grading work should be done firstly. The root system should be well-developed, and the white color should be selected. The seedlings with strong growth should be subdivided according to their height and base of the stem, and the pseudostem should be 1cm. For the first level, 0.8cm is secondary, and 0.4cm is tertiary. Seedlings of different levels are planted separately. Plant spacing is 10 ~ 15cm ~ 0 ~ 12cm, dense planting seedlings, large seedlings and sparse planting. Considering fertility and water and fertilizer conditions at the same time, the planting should be properly planted when the soil is weak and the water and fertilizer conditions are poor. According to the row spacing, the depth is about 3cm. At the same time, diammonium phosphate and potassium sulfate are applied in the ditch at a rate of 300kg per hectare and planted according to the plant spacing. Planting should not be too deep. It is advisable to bury the bulbs and pour them in water, about 2 cm. Otherwise it will produce a spindle-shaped bulb, affecting the commercial nature. After planting ridges, mulching, surrounded by strict pressure.
3 Field Management
3.1 Timely replanting of seedlings to ensure that the whole seedlings are planted and rejuvenated, and timely check the plots. The lack of seedlings will be completed as soon as possible to ensure full seedlings.
3.2 Moisture management After onion planting, the yin condition is good and no irrigation is needed. After the seedlings are returned to green in late April, they must be watered in time to promote growth. In the first half of May, when the leaf grows into a prosperous period, the number of irrigation and irrigation should be appropriately increased, and the amount of irrigation water should be increased about 15 days. Otherwise, the aboveground growth is not sufficient and the number of hair leaves is insufficient, which will affect the bulb hypertrophy and reduce the yield. Into the June, onion into the key expansion period, to 7 ~ 10d once, often keep the soil moist, if the fertilizer and water shortage, spicy flavor, low yield. By early July, when bulbs are close to maturity, irrigation should be reduced. Stop irrigation until 7-8 days before harvest. From planting to harvesting, irrigation is usually done 10 to 12 times.
3.3 Fertilizer management Onion fertilizer is good for the soil. The requirements for fertilizer and water in different growth periods are different. Nitrogen is the main fertilizer in the seedling stage, and potassium is the main fertilizer in the bulb expansion period. Phosphorus is not available in the whole growth period.
The topdressing is divided into two stages. The first time after the seedlings turn green, the leaves begin to grow. This is the basic fertilizer for the high yield of onions. The time is mid-May and 150-225 kg of ammonium sulfate is applied per hectare. The second time the bulb expansion started at the end of May to early June, it was the key fertilizer for high yield, 225 kg of ammonium sulfate and 150 kg of potassium sulfate. Top dressing combined with irrigation.
3.4 If the cultivating and weeding are not covered by mulching, it is necessary to carry out 2 to 3 times of cultivating and cultivating tillage before the expansion of the bulb. The cultivator began to be deeper, more than 3cm, and then gradually shallow ploughing. Weed control should be removed early, in addition to the net to prevent grassland. Cultivated grasshoppers use large quantities of workers and can be considered for herbicides.
4 Pest control
4.1 The use of high-resistance and multi-resistance varieties for agricultural control to prevent seed carry; to cultivate age-appropriate seedlings, improve stress resistance, control fertilizer and water, prevent accumulation of water, clean the pastoral, create a favorable environment for favorable growth and development, to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases; and Non-onion and garlic crops rotate for more than 3 years; reasonable fertilization, drainage after rain, make the plants grow robust, enhance disease resistance; promptly remove pests and leaves, remove severely ill strains.
4.2 Liquid of sugar, wine, liquor, sugar, vinegar, wine, water and 90% trichlorfon crystals 3:3:1:10:0.5 proportion of solution, placed 15 to 45 pots per hectare, ready to add, keep untold, trapping Species fly pests.
4.3 Chemical control of onion production Pest and disease hazards are concentrated in the decay of stems. The main diseases that are harmful are soft rot, white rot, gray mold, leafminer, and fly. During the occurrence period, spray prevention and control are generally selected in dry and sunny weather, and care should be taken in alternation of rotation and rational use.
For the control of soft rot, 72% of agricultural streptomycin sulfate soluble powder can be sprayed with 4000 times solution, or 14% of collaborative ammonia bronze solution can be sprayed with 300 times solution; 50% thiophanate-methyl WP can be used to control white rot. Or spray with 50% carbendazim WP 500 times; control of gray mold can also be sprayed with 50% carbendazim WP 300 times, or 50% thiophanate-methyl WP 300 times.
Liriomyza sativae and Drosophila melanogaster are the vectors of various diseases, and they directly harm the production. They can be used to control 21% killing and 4000 times liquid spray; seed fly control can also use 40% Leko cream 1000 times liquid to root, or 90 % Crystal trichlorfon 1000 times Irrigation root.
5 timely harvest, proper storage
In the middle and early July, when the lower leaves of the onion are yellow, two-thirds of the plants must be harvested in time for lodging. For those plants that grow more prosperous, they can overwhelm their false stems in advance, harvest on sunny days, and avoid rain. With leaves from the onion, pay attention to gently, avoid bumping the bulbs, the leaves covered with onions on the cocoon drying 6 ~ 7d, pay attention to rain water, wait until the onion surface dry cut off the leaves and fibrous roots, Remove the dirt and store it in a cool, ventilated place.

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