There are many types of air compressors. According to the working principle, they can be divided into volumetric compressors, speed compressors, and volumetric compressors. The working principle of compressed air is to increase the density of gas molecules per unit volume to increase the compressed air. Pressure; the working principle of the speed compressor is to increase the speed of movement of the gas molecules, so that the kinetic energy of the gas molecules is converted into the pressure energy of the gas, thereby increasing the pressure of the compressed air.
The actual operating conditions of the air compressor vary with the needs of the process or gas consuming equipment, making the method of selecting the air compressor based on the maximum volumetric flow required by the plant or system is less than appropriate. When the air consumption is less than the air compressor's exhaust volume, the air compressor needs to be adjusted to adjust the air compressor's exhaust capacity to the air consumption requirement, and the pressure in the pipe network is kept stable.
Below we take the reciprocating air compressor as an example to introduce the commonly used gas volume adjustment method:
1. Pressing the intake valve to adjust According to the length of the process in which the intake valve is pressed, the method classifies the full-stroke pressure-opening intake valve and the partial-stroke pressure-opening intake valve. For the full stroke of the intake valve adjustment, during the suction process, the gas is drawn into the cylinder. During the compression process, since the intake valve is fully opened, the inhaled gas is completely pushed out of the cylinder. Assume that an air compressor has a first-stage double-acting cylinder. If only one intake valve on the piston side is used, the air volume is reduced by 50%. If both sides are simultaneously opened, the displacement is zero, so the machine can be realized. Gas volume 0, 50% and 100% three-stage adjustment. It can be seen that the adjustment range of the full-stroke pressure-opening intake valve is large, which is suitable for coarse adjustment. The principle of partial stroke pressurization of the intake valve is similar to that of the full stroke open intake valve, but it controls the amount of return air by controlling the closing timing of the intake valve in the air compressor, so that continuous adjustment of the air volume can be achieved due to compression. The work is almost reduced in proportion to the amount of exhaust gas, so there is still a high operating economy. 2. The speed adjustment speed adjustment is to adjust the air volume by changing the speed of the air compressor. The advantage of this adjustment is that the gas volume is continuous, the power consumption is small, the pressure ratio of the air compressor is constant, and the special adjustment mechanism is not required on the air compressor; however, it is only widely used in the internal combustion engine and the steam turbine. On the air compressor, if the drive machine is an electric motor, the inverter needs to be configured. Because the high-power, high-voltage inverter is expensive and requires a lot of maintenance and repair work, it is currently on the motor-driven reciprocating air compressor. This method is rarely used. In addition, variable speed adjustment may adversely affect the operation of the air compressor, such as air valve flutter, large component wear, increased vibration, insufficient lubrication, etc., which also limits the wide application of the method.
3. Bypass adjustment The exhaust pipe is connected to the intake pipe via the bypass line and the bypass valve. When the bypass valve is opened during adjustment, part of the exhaust gas returns to the intake line. This adjustment method is flexible and simple, and the adjustment accuracy is also high with the automatic control system. However, since all the compression work of the excess gas is lost, the economy is poor. Therefore, this method is suitable for occasional adjustment or adjustment. A small range.
4. The clearance chamber is adjusted on the cylinder of the air compressor. Except for the fixed clearance volume, there is no certain cavity. When adjusting, it is connected to the cylinder working chamber to increase the clearance volume and reduce the volume coefficient. The amount is reduced, which is the working principle of the clearance chamber adjustment. According to the different ways of accessing the volume of the subsidy, it is divided into continuous and graded adjustments with intermittent input, which are mostly used for large-scale process air compressors. The main disadvantage of this type of adjustment is that it is usually manually adjusted and the response speed is slow. It is generally used in conjunction with other adjustment methods. Although the method of connecting the variable auxiliary clearance volume can achieve adjustment in the range of 0%-100% in principle, the system reliability is poor, the wearing parts are many, and it is difficult to maintain.
The above instructions for air compressor air volume adjustment should be carried out in accordance with the normal working procedures to improve the efficiency of the air compressor, optimize the working procedures, and reduce operating costs.

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