Potatoes are rich in nutrients, have a large market, export volume, and have the advantages of high economic efficiency, short growth period, and high yield. My county has a subtropical monsoon climate, warm winter, sunny, suitable for winter potato production, the development of winter potato to promote the development of agriculture and rural economy in our county is of great significance. In order to realize high-yielding cultivation of winter potato, the following steps should be taken:
First, the choice of site preparation, adequate base fertilizer selection and irrigation convenience, soil loose and fertile, deep sandy soil or sandy loam soil (field) block is the most appropriate to avoid the choice of eggplant (tomato, eggplant, pepper) or cabbage, cabbage, etc. Planted for the previous crop to reduce the occurrence of comorbid diseases. Potatoes are underground potato crops that must be finely soiled to keep the soil loose. After the harvest, plowing and deep plowing are carried out to ensure that the loose soil layer is more than 25 cm. The land preparation needs to be leveled, soil is fine, and real work is under the emptiness. Ridging ridges, with a width of 85 to 90 cm, a double row of planted sorghum, 25 cm wide, and 25 cm high.
Basing on basal fertilization is the key to winning the potato's high yield. Basal fertilizer should account for more than two-thirds of the fertilization amount in the whole growth period, mainly organic fertilizer, supplemented by chemical fertilizer, and nitrogen and phosphorus. Generally, 750 to 1,000 kg of earth miscellaneous fertilizer or fire earth, 300 to 500 kg of decomposed human and animal manure, 30 to 40 kg of ternary compound fertilizer, 25 to 30 kg of superphosphate, 10 kg of potassium chloride or potassium sulfate As base fertilizer. During the raking, apply a ditch to the raft and take care to prevent the fertilizer from contacting the seed potatoes.
Second, the selection of seed potato, disinfection and cutting of seed potato selection: after the determination of planting varieties, to select high-quality seed potatoes, remove rotten, disease, injury tubers, select the potato block neat, in line with the characteristics of the species, smooth and soft, smooth skin, skin color Fresh seed potatoes. At the same time, remove the deformed, pointed, cracked, rough skin, skin dark talk, buds prominent old potatoes.
Seed disinfection: In order to ensure that seed potatoes are free from germs, seed potatoes must be sterilized by spreading the selected seed potatoes with 200 times 40% formalin or 400 times 75% chlorothalonil solution. , Cover with a film for 2 hours, ventilate and dry (do not expose to sunlight), store in a cool, dry place.
Seed cuttings. Seed chips are cut the day before sowing. Two cutters can be prepared before cutting and disinfected with 75% alcohol or 0.5% potassium permanganate solution, or the knife edge can be disinfected with a 75% alcohol flower bud. When cutting, the potatoes must be cut to the buds. It is not possible to bring only the flesh around the eyes but to leave the rest of the potatoes. It is even better not to dig the shoots into small pieces or small cones. Each bud weight is best cut into 50 grams (1 two), the minimum is not less than 30 grams (6 money), keep 1 to 2 buds. About 50 grams of uncut potato chips, 60 to 100 grams of cis-top cut into two pieces; 110 to 150 grams of first cut one-third of the tail, the top buds cut into 3 pieces; 160 grams Above the first vertical and then cut. According to the classification of seed potato cuttings or budding, it should be stored in a cool and dry place with scattered light. In order to avoid the infection of potato chips, it is best to use a plant ash cut after cutting, and then sow the seeds after healing.
Third, timely sowing, planting a reasonable planting season: generally in mid-late and late more appropriate. Premature temperatures are high and bad, and late growth is prone to disease in the rainy season. Sowing specifications: generally 80 to 90 cm of double-row phytoseiid pods, row spacing 25 to 30 cm, plant spacing 25 cm, early mature varieties suitable for sowing, moderate late varieties suitable for sowing. Ditch planting, sowing depth of 5 to 6 cm, sowing seed potatoes and fertilizers to avoid contact, at the same time the buds in the same position on the same or near the same length of seed potato seed sowing in the same ridge, in order to benefit Qi seedling management; Seed Bud tip or bud eyes up, perpendicular to the horizontal plane. After sowing, cover a thin layer of 5-6 cm and cover the surface with straw.
Fourth, field management measures
1, set early seedlings, early cultivator soil. After the seedlings were established, 1 to 2 seedlings were kept in each plant, and the excess weak seedlings were removed in order to benefit the seedlings. During the entire growth period, the soil is required to be cultivated twice. The first time the seedling height is 10-15 cm, and the upper soil is 5-6 cm. The soil is dominated by loose soil and extermination; the second time it is carried out before the seal line, as far as possible. The earth should be wide, and the earth should be 3 to 4 cm thick to create a large and large condition. When soiling, pay attention to minimize damage to the seedlings.
2, early fertilizer. The first top dressing was performed at 70% emergence, which promoted seedlings and increased leaf area. After every 7~10 days fertilization once, to the stems and leaves seal line when a total of 4 to 5 times, the first time per mu compound fertilizer 10 to 12 kg, plus urea 2 to 3 kg, watering 1500 to 2000 kg The second mu compound fertilizer 7 ~ 10 kg, plus urea 2 ~ 3 kg, the third time from the gradual reduction of urea, potassium chloride or potassium sulfate to increase 2 to 3 kg. At the same time, in the seedling stage, potato stage, and expansive stage, "Yunda 120" 500 times solution or 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution was used to spray the foliar fertilizer once to regulate plant growth. Ninety-two O" 1 g watered 75 kg sprayed to extend the ripening period.
3. Prevent drought in the early stage and prevent waterlogging in the later period. Potatoes are sensitive to moisture and require moist soil throughout the growing period. Overly arid rice fields are filled with horse water one week before the late rice harvest to keep the soil moist when sown. When the soil is too dry after sowing, the ditch is used for ditching and ditching. After several hours of preservation, it can be drained after being wet at 8 to 10 cm in the soil. In the potato stage, the water requirement is large, and if the soil is too dry, it should be filled with the above method in time. Late rainy weather is more common, especially in the late-maturing varieties, drainage should be done to prevent the waterlogging of the field.
4, control of pests and diseases. Focus on the control of bacterial wilt, ring rot, late blight, aphids, earthworms, earthworms, aphids, and tuber moths. In addition to disease-resistant pests, disease-resistant varieties should be selected, diseased seed potatoes should be removed, and seed potato disinfection and cutting knife disinfection should be performed. Focus should also be placed on field observation and timely application of pesticides. In combination with the first and last leaching, 0.7 to 1 kg of crystals of trichlorfon are added to prevent and control underground pests: kill 25% or 2.5% of extinction 10-15 ml, and spray 60 kg of seedlings to control aphids. Mites. Bacterial wilt can be treated with 500 ml Grams per acre or 600 grams Ye Qingshuang during the first topdressing. In severe cases, the diseased plants should be removed. After applying a layer of lime to the whole garden, use 2000 times of streptomycin for agricultural irrigation. deal with. In the middle and later periods, with heavy rainfall and high humidity, we must focus on the prevention and control of late blight. Before the onset of disease, 70% mancozeb or 80% spray 100 grams should be used before the onset of disease, and 40 kg of water should be sprayed. The onset period is 25% or 35%. Metalaxyl, any one of 72% Kelu 100 ~ 150 grams, add 50 kg water spray.

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